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Part III

 

Writing a Research Paper – Final Paper

 

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Objective

 

Based on your part I and part II, you will develop a final draft of your research paper. In this assignment, the objective is to improve your paper further regarding:

 

·         evaluating the sources and selecting appropriate ones

 

·         properly citing and referencing your sources

 

·         avoiding plagiarism by properly paraphrasing, summarizing or quoting sources

 

·         organizing the research results into a final paper

 

·         locating quantitative data with visual formats (e.g., graphs, tables) that support your argument

 

 

 

Assignment

 

In the final draft of the research paper, you need to add more content to improve your first draft from part II by:

 

·         developing your discussion on your research topic further based on your searches

 

·         quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing original sources

 

·         citing your sources in-text and creating a reference list at the end of your final paper

 

·         including various types of sources (required types of sources: scholarly journal articles, web articles, books).

 

·         statistical information with either graphs or tables format to support your points

 

·         a description of the graphs or tables in the text with citations

 

 

 

Format

 

·         Develop a final paper with at least 8 pages (excluding references).

 

·         Use 12 point font, Times New Roman, double space

 

·         Create MS-Word document file.

 

·         Use the format below to organize your final research paper.

 

·         Submit your assignment via Blackboard.

 

 

 

Citation and References

 

In-text citation and references are required in this assignment. You should properly cite sources based on APA format.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grading Rubric (15% of course grade)

 

 

Exceeds Standard

Meets Standard

Approaches Standard

Needs attention

Relevance and Quality of Information Sources

20 points

Information sources highly relevant to the project or paper’s scope.

Information sources appear to be mostly relevant to the project or paper’s scope.

Information sources appear to be of limited relevance to the project or paper’s scope.

Information sources do not appear to be relevant to the project or paper’s scope.

Types of Information Sources

10 points

Includes at least 5 required types of sources: (a) scholarly journal articles, (b) web articles, and (c) books

Includes at least 4 required types of sources: (a) scholarly journal articles, (b) web articles, and (c) books

Includes at least 3 required types of sources: (a) scholarly journal articles, (b) web articles, and (c) books

Includes at least 2 required types of sources: (a) scholarly journal articles, (b) web articles, and (c) books

Visual data sources

10 points

Visual data is presented as a graph or a table that supports your discussion. A description of how the graph or table demonstrates your position is provided. The APA format in-text citation and reference are given.

Visual data is presented as a graph or a table. It either does not support your discussion or the in-text citation and reference were not given.

Visual data is unrelated to research topic.

No visual data sources given.

Discussion

30 points

Develop discussion of the research question by organizing, synthesizing and discussing data from information sources.

Develop discussion of the research question by organizing and discussing data from information sources.

Develop discussion of the research question by attempting to organize and discuss data from information sources.

Discussion not on topic and randomly written.

Citation Format

10 points

All cited sources in the paper and the references are in APA style.

Most cited sources in the paper and the references are APA style. There are fewer than 10 mistakes.

Attempted to cite sources in the paper and the references using APA style. There are more than 10 mistakes.

No in-text citations or reference list given.

Conclusion

20 points

Summarizes an answer to the research question using supporting details to justify the answer. At least eight sentences to provide a complete argument.

Summarizes an answer to the research question using supporting details to justify the answer. At least four sentences to provide a complete argument.

Attempts to answer the research question.

No conclusion or conclusion unrelated to research question.

 

 

 

Use the following format and headings/sub-headings to write your final paper.

 

 

 

*****************************************************************************

 

 

 

Part III: Final research paper

 

[Research Paper Title]

 

[Student Name]

 

[Course Number, CRN; Class Time; Instructor’s Name]

 

 

 

I.            Introduction

 

           A.            Research question and objectives

 

Present your research question and provide a good description on your research objectives with at least 10 sentences.

 

           B.            Background of your research idea

 

Provide a description on the history of the main concepts in your research topic with at least 4 sentences with citations. Include in-text citations and references.

 

 

 

II.            Sub-topic 1

 

                            A.            Two paragraphs using supporting details from outline.

 

III.            Sub-topic 2

 

                            A.            Two paragraphs using supporting details from outline.

 

IV.            Sub-topic 3

 

                            A.            Two paragraphs using supporting details from outline.

 

V.            Sub-topic 4

 

                            A.            Two paragraphs using supporting details from outline.

 

VI.            Sub-topic 5

 

                            A.            Two paragraphs using supporting details from outline.

 

VII.            Conclusion

 

Summarizes an answer to the research question using supporting details to justify the answer. At least eight sentences to provide a complete argument.

 

 

 

VIII.            References

 

Create references on a separate page. See the module 7 and ODU Library page for formatting of references: http://guides.lib.odu.edu/cite

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note: Visual data should be inserted in the appropriate sub-topic paragraph(s) to support your argument.

 

Title: Military Plans Outlined by 2016 Candidates

 

 

 

 

 

 

October, 2016

 

Part II

 

A.    Introduction

 

Candidates and political parties fielding candidates at various levels often make pledges or proposals of what they will do for the electorate and general public once they take office. These pledges are vital to the candidates because they help them curry favor with the voters and offer insights into the minds of the candidate or the political party. This paper will examine the proposals that the two leading candidates in the 2016 United States presidential election i.e. Democratic Party’s Hillary Clinton and Republican Party’s Donald J. Trump have put forward with respect to military spending. Although voters are generally cynical about the promises that candidates, and with good reasons, it is still important to study the promises that candidates make. The cynicism is as a result of the feeling that campaign promises are made to be broken.   

 

 

 

A.    Motivation of this Research

 

The United States has the highest military expenditures in the world by far. In fact, on the list of the highest spenders internationally, the U.S sits comfortably at the top and spends more money than the other seven nations below it combined. Due to the classified nature of the military expenditure, the only amounts available are just estimates and not the actual amounts. In the 2015 fiscal year, it is estimated that U.S had a budget of almost $600 billion without including some other components that are hidden in other budgets. The military budget is then used to finance the activities of the U.S military branches i.e. the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps and the Navy. Some of the votes in the budget include retired military pay, active duty pay, reserve and National Guard pay, civilian pay, veterans’ affairs, developing and acquiring of military hardware, maintenance of equipment etc. (Walker, 2014).

 

However huge military expenditures are only one way of assessing military power. It also matters how the military utilizes the financial resources vis-à-vis the enemies of the country and their capabilities. In the face of budget constraints, the debate is rife on what the optimum level of the U.S military budget should be. US military spending had been declining since the end of the Cold War in the 1990s, but again surged with the war on terror after 9/11 and the Iraq war and in 2011 with increased activity in Afghanistan. However with the reduced activity in Afghanistan and Iraq, the defense spending is expected to decline going into 2020. High military spending means that other government programs are being starved. It is even worse when the government uses debt to finance military expenditure. High national debt affects everyone in the country because in the long run increased debt slows down economic growth and inevitably results to higher taxation. There is a line of argument that increased military spending creates jobs and promotes technological advancements and therefore it is not an entire loss to spend on the military. The big question however is what the optimum amount of military spending is so that other government programs are not stifled and the national security is protected. This is why the policies put forward by the presidential candidates matter because they determine the answer to that question.

 

A.    Research Questions and Objectives

 

What will be the impact of the defense plan of the two leading candidates on the taxpayers and average American households? This paper will examine the defense plans of the two candidates, how much thy will cost the taxpayers, the proposals made by the candidates on how to raise the money and the impact they will have on tax payers and the economy.

 

II. Background of the Research Idea

 

Many candidates in the U.S presidential race have made pledges and violated them once they get elected. A case in point is Republican George H.W. Bush who on the campaign trail in 1988 pledged not to increase taxes but after he took office and the recession began to bite, he gave and raised taxes (Bartlett, 2016). The most common reason why promises are broken is because of unforeseen circumstances. Sometimes voters too pile pressure on candidates to make unrealistic pledges. For instance when in 1940 Roosevelt pledged that he would send American soldiers to war in Europe, that promise was nullified was nullified by Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor. However, there is evidence that candidates do try to keep their promises and those who do not are punished by the voters in the consequent election as George H.W Bush found out when he was floored by Bill Clinton in 1992.

 

Krukones (1984) found out that 75% of the pledges made by presidents from Woodrow Wilson to Jimmy Carter were kept.  [MAK1] Therefore we can conclude that the reasons why promises are not kept are most often than not external to the candidate. They range from opposition by congress to the actions of foreign governments. Therefore it makes sense to take the policy proposals and promises that candidates make because most likely they will try to follow through with them once they are elected.

 

 

 

 

 

Thesis

 

It is important to take seriously the pledges that candidates make on the campaign trail. This is because they will strive to fulfill them to avoid punishment by voters in the next election. This paper covers the pledges that the leading candidates in the 2016 presidential elections have made and how they will impact the taxpayers if the candidates are elected and decide if they decide to go ahead with them.

 

 

 

III. Donald Trump’s Plan

 

A.    Military Spending

 

Donald Trump has outlined his plan on military spending under his leadership if he was to take office. He has called for an increase in military spending and also promised to rebuilt the military ‘and make it great again’. Trump reasons that by increasing the U.S military strength, the government would be able to deter enemies and prevent conflicts. Some of the highlights of his military policy include; lifting the military budget caps also known as sequesters and increase military spending by over $500 billion over a period of one decade (Landy & Strobel, 2016).

 

 According to Trump, the military today is unable to deal with the current threats leave alone the emerging ones. The budget caps were introduced by the Congress in 2011 after passing the Budget Control Act (Von Daniels, 2016). [MAK2] The lifting of the budget would free up more resources for the military. He has also promised a massive expansion of the United States military which already spends more money by far than any other force in the world. He charges that the budget caps pose the biggest threat to the readiness of the U.S military for combat.

 

This position is also supported by top official in the U.S military. Gen Daniel Allyn the Vice Chief of Staff [MAK3] in the U.S Army while testifying before the Senate Armed Services Committee reckoned that the army required predictable and sustained funding to be fully prepared to combat emerging threats. The same position was taken by the Vice Chief of Naval Operation Adm. Michelle Howard. Howard’s opinion cuts the budget embolden the countries enemies and invite more aggressions. Trump would expand the size of the U.S Army by recruiting an additional sixty thousand soldiers to bring the total size of Army personnel to 540,000 from the current 480,000 (Whitney, 2016).

 

B.     MARINE CORPS

 

Trump has also pledged to expand the Marine Corps by providing an extra thirteen battalions to the existing twenty six battalions.  This in effect means an extra ten thousand marines would have to be recruited. The Assistant Commander of the Marine Corps told a Senate Committee that they are having a hard dispensing their mandate given the limited allocation of finances and the budget limitations. In his opinion is no longer able to maintain its preparedness, maintain its equipment and facilities while modernizing its infrastructure. The personnel and equipment are particularly overstretched in the gathering of intelligence, communication technology as well as aviation.

 

C.    NAVY

 

Trump’s plan for the military also includes building the navy capabilities by acquiring additional surface ships and submarines to around 350. According to documents available at the Congressional Research Service, the Navy has a plan that requests a fleet of 308 (Lesperance, 2016. It also included expanding the capability of the Air Force with an arsenal of not less than 1,200 fighter aircrafts (Lesperance, 2016). The Air Force also felt the negative impact of the budget cuts. Finally Trump has also promised to build a modern missile defense system for the United States to demonstrate the might of the U.S Army to the hostile countries such as North Korea and Iran.

 

IV. Hillary Clinton’s Plan

 

A.    Budget Caps

 

Hillary Clinton unlike Donald Trump has plenty of experience in the public service former first lady she was actively involved in the administration, as the former senator from New York and as the Secretary of State in President Obama’s first term in office. In addition, she served as a member of the Senate Armed Services Committee. She supports the lifting for military spending because it provides the U.S military with the fiscal stability it requires. Clinton has also pledged to invest significant resources that enables the United States to benefit from the information advantage that the United States enjoys as well as prepare the United States to combat the threats that enemy poses in the 21st century such as cybercrime and cyber terrorism (Lieven, 2016).  

 

B.     Cost Control

 

When she takes office, Clinton has also pledged to streamline the Department of Defense budget by prioritizing reform programs, controlling healthcare costs and the cost of military hardware and software. In other words the Clinton administration aims at efficiently using every dollar that is allocated to the Department of Defense. In addition she has promised to ensure that veterans and their families are able to access quality mental and physical, healthcare, that their claims are swiftly processed to eliminate backlog, that veterans have access to employment as well as higher education opportunities, that they are empowered to fight drug abuse, homelessness and that their families are well taken care of. Her opinion is that Americans have a responsibility to take care of their veterans because of the sacrifice that they make on behalf of their country. Furthermore she believes that proper care for veterans boosts the morale of the soldiers who are in active duty. In addition she has pledged to reform the management of the Veterans Affairs Department to ensure that the department serves the veterans and is also accountable for the resources allocated to it. She is also opposed to suggestions to privatize or outsource the services of the Veterans Health Authority because that would make it less sensitive to the needs of the veterans.

 

C.    Women in the Force

 

Clinton has also promised to support women in competing for positions in the military if they meet the qualifications. She favors diplomacy and building alliances with other nations as a sure path to long lasting security while Donald Trump favors a more aggressive approach in tackling threats facing the U.S national security abroad.

 

V. Impact of Plans

 

Donald Trump has a very ambitious plan of ‘rebuilding’ the U.S Military. The proposals by Trump if fully implemented would cost the tax payers in excess of four trillion dollars. For instance on average a soldier makes $95000 annually (Locsin, [MAK4] 2016). Trump’s recruitment plan alone would cost the tax payers $6.9 billion annually while an F22 aircraft would cost taxpayers $150 million (Face[MAK5]  the Facts, 2012). Trump has put across various proposals to pay for the cost of his military plan. He has called for a responsible reduction of the federal workforce to generate savings and pay for the defense spending. He has also pledged to implore the Congress to lift the budget caps on military spending to give the Department of Defense ability to plan better for the future. He has also pledged to reduce funding for unnecessary federal programs which are not required by law as well as cutting on ‘budget gimmicks’ which drive up defense cost unnecessarily. The proposal that Trump is putting across for raising money to fund the defense plan are nowhere near what is required. Inevitably the programs cannot only be funded through debt, or raising taxes and both have a negative impact on average American households.

 

VI. Conclusion

 

On the other hand Clinton’s [MAK6] plan places more emphasis on diplomacy and building alliances with our allies as well as building American cyber warfare capabilities. Moreover, Clinton has many years of experience in public service as a First Lady, as a U.S Senator who served in the Armed Services Committee and also as a Secretary of State. Her plans are therefore more in tandem with reality. This is complicated by the fact that Trump’s position it has[MAK7] been changing and it is difficult to tell whether he is posturing with his military plan or he would actually follow through with it if he took office. In the long run, Clinton plan is more sustainable and economical compared to Trump’s plan. It is important however for voters to understand the suggestions being put across by the candidates in-depth before making their decision on Election Day.

 

 

 

REFERENCES[MAK8] 

 

Bartlett, B. (2016). Republican Presidents Always Disappoint. [MAK8] Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2740077

 

 

 

De Bruijn, J. A. (2016). Donalds Trump’s rhetoric: an analysis of his frames.[MAK9] 

 

Retrieved from xxx

 

George Washington University. School of Media and Public Affair. Face The Facts USA (2012, November 04).New Aircraft Carrier Does More with Less Crewhttp://www.facethefactsusa.org/facts/New-Aircraft-Carrier-Does-More-with-Less-Crew[MAK10] 

 

Hillary for America (2016, june 02). Military defense

 

Landay, J., & Strobel, W. (2016, September 08). Reut[MAK11] ers.Trump would spend billions more on military, but for what? experts askhttp://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-election-trump-military-idUSKCN11E34D

 

Lesperance, W. F. (2016). American Foreign Policy and the 2016 Presidential Election. Society53(5), 498-502. DOI: 10.1007/s12115-016-0056-y[MAK12] 

 

Lieven, A. (2016). Clinton and Trump: Two Faces of American Nationalism. Survival58(5), 7-[MAK13] 22.

 

 Locsin, A. (2016). The Average Salary of a U.S. Soldier. Retrieved from Chron: http://work.chron.com/average-salary-us-soldier-9060.html[MAK14] 

 

 Walker, D. (2014, July 15). Council of Foreign Relations. Retrieved from Trends in U.S. Military Spen[MAK15] ding: http://www.cfr.org/defense-budget/trends-us-military-spending/p28855

 

Whitney, M. (2016). Donald Trump and the revolt of the proles. Guardian (Sydney), (1741), 6.[MAK16] 

 

 

 

 

 


 [MAK1]Source?

 [MAK2]I don’t get Von Daniels discussing Turmp in her book.

 [MAK3]capitalize

 [MAK4]What is the math that gets you to 4 trillion using average salary? How many soldiers are there?

 [MAK5]ok

 [MAK6]?

 [MAK7]?

 [MAK8]See how to use hanging indent

http://academicanswers.waldenu.edu/faq/72740

 

Don’t use live hyperlink

 

 [MAK9]http://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid:85a0509e-b985-430f-8e64-91a7a1eebdfa/?collection=research

 

Use this link to determine what kind of source (journal article, website, blog post, magazine) you have and cite accordingly.

 [MAK10]Author. (Date). Article Title. Retrieved from xxx

George Washington University. School of Media and Public Affair. Face The Facts USA. = put all this in place of author, in this order.

 

 [MAK11]Good, fix the rest of it.

 [MAK12]This is an electronic source with a DOI. Add the DOI.

 [MAK13]Add space after the period.

 [MAK14]You almost have it right.

http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/cite-newspaper.aspx

Author good. Improve date. Don’t italicize article title. Add the newspaper Houston Chronicle.

Magazines and newspapers need full dates, journal articles only need the year.

 

 [MAK15]fix

 [MAK16]ODU doesn’t subscribe to this newspaper. I believe you retrieved it from Counterpunch. It’s possible I didn’t approve of the site because of bias. If you are going to use this you need to cite your source.

who can do the visual data part?

 

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